Introduction

The FOOT (FragmentatiOn Of Target) experiment aims to perform this investigation using an inverse kinematic strategy. This means that instead of using a beam of protons as a projectile, a beam of heavy tissue -like ions (O and C) with the same energy per nucleon would be used against a proton target. This approach is necessary since products emerging from target fragmentation have very low energy and it would be extremely difficult to measure, while using inverse kinematics secondary fragments have boosted energy and longer range, making detection easier.

The final goal of the detector is to measure the heavy fragment (Z>3) cross section with maximum uncertainty of 5% and the fragment energy spectrum with an energy resolution of the order of 1-2 MeV/u.  

Hadrontherapy

Radiation therapy is the medical use of ionizing radiation to treat cancer. In conventional radiation therapy, beams of X rays (high energy photons) are produced by accelerated electrons and then delivered to the patient to destroy tumour cells. Using crossing beams from many angles, radiation oncologists irradiate the tumour target while trying to spare the surrounding normal tissues. Inevitably some radiation dose is always deposited in the healthy tissues.

When the irradiating beams are made of charged particles (protons and other ions, such as carbon), radiation therapy is called hadrontherapy. The strength of hadrontherapy lies in the unique physical and radiobiological properties of these particles; they can penetrate the tissues with little diffusion and deposit the maximum energy just before stopping. This allows a precise definition of the specific region to be irradiated. The peaked shape of the hadron energy deposition is called Bragg peak and has become the symbol of hadrontherapy.

With the use of hadrons the tumour can be irradiated while the damage to healthy tissues is less than with X-rays. idea of using protons for cancer treatment was first proposed in 1946 by the physicist Robert Wilson, who later became the founder and first director of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) near Chicago. The first patients were treated in the 1950s in nuclear physics research facilities by means of non-dedicated accelerators. Initially, the clinical applications were limited to few parts of the body, as accelerators were not powerful enough to allow protons to penetrate deep in the tissues.

NASA

These measurements are also interesting for other applications, like radioprotection in space. NASA and other space agencies have started since several years the study of the risk assessment for astronauts in view of long duration space missions, such for instance the travel to Mars. Beyond many important risks of other nature, both galactic cosmic rays and particles from the almost unpredictable Solar Particle Events have to be considered. The design and optimization of spacecraft shielding requires a detailed knowledge of fragmentation processes.