2 items tagged "INFN"

  • Gingerino


    INTERNA Gingerino 01

    Ring laser gyroscopes are, at present, the most precise sensors of absolute angular velocity. They are essential in estimating rotation rates relative to the local inertial frame in many contexts ranging from inertial guidance to angle metrology, from geodesy to geophysics, as well to fundamental physics. Large ring laser gyroscopes (with a perimeter of several meters) are capable to measure angular rotations with precision better that a fraction of prad/s, not far from what is necessary for General Relativity tests (about 10−14rad/s). GINGERino, installed at LNGS at the end of September 2014, is a 3.6m side square ring laser. The instrument has been tailored to be the largest possible fitting the area assigned by the laboratory, since large rings have higher sensitivity. Its main objective is to measure the very low frequency rotational motions inside LNGS, in order to show if this is a suitable location for very low noise measurements and General Relativity tests. At the same time it will provide interesting informations for geodesy and geophysics. At the end of the year 2014 the largest part of the apparatus has been installed and the first laser light of the GINGERino ring has been observed.The apparatus is at the moment in a ’commissioning’ phase, improvements of the mechanical parts are in progress, and data taking does take place as well, but not yet in a continuous basis. The apparatus of GINGERino contain as well tilt meters with sensitivity of few nano-rad and seismometers. G-Pisa, a square ring with side length of 1.35m, was our first prototype. It was a transportable device, which has been installed in different locations, with different orien- tations (horizontal, vertical, or aligned with the Earth rotational axis). In 2013 it has been transferred inside LNGS, providing a set of measurements (see our LNGS Report 2013 for details). This first set of measurements suggested a new improved installation, that was recently realised. This new installation has been located inside LNGS, approxi- mately 11 m ( South) far from node B, in a place isolated from human activity, starting at the end of September 2014. The apparatus, named GINGERino, uses the mechanics of G-Pisa, but the dimension of the perimeter has been increased up to 14.4 m, which should provide a factor 7 improvement in sensitivity, and a large suppression of laser systematic effects (backscattering and frequency pulling). The sensitivity of GINGERino is expected to be about 5 × 10−10rad/s/Hz1/2, assuming mirrors with total losses of about 15 ppm, similar to the best set of mirrors we have had so far. GINGERino is a small apparatus compared to the average size of the INFN and LNGS experiments, nevertheless it is composed of several parts and other high sensitivity in- struments are co-located, as tilt meters with nrad resolution and high performance seismometers. These two instruments will improve the knowledge of the behaviour of the location, and will be very helpful in the interpretation of geophysical data. Long term data acquisition is expected to start sometime in 2015, it is a test apparatus, the effort will be concentrated on improving the stability and accuracy, nevertheless the data of GINGERino are of interest for seismology and geodesy. Our experiment is interdisci- plinar. GINGERino is financed by INFN and is one of the prototypes of the experiment G-GranSasso.

  • GP2


    GP2 image 1     

    GP2, the prototype installed at INFN laboratories in Pisa, is the seed device for the next generation heterolitic active- stabilized RLs. It has been designed in order to gain a long term stability and accuracy of the scale factor, via a precise control of the systematic errors related to the fluctuation of the cavity geometry and the active medium parameters. In particular, it is dedicated to implement a length stabilization of the diagonal cavities using optical interferometric techniques. The granite slab whereon the cavity is placed is oriented along the local latitude in order to maximize the Sagnac signal and minimize the orientation errors on scale factor. The four mirrors holders are placed at the corner of a square granite slab and the vacuum chamber encloses the beam optical path along a square loop 1.60 m length in side. The slab whereon the holders are mounted is made of precise black granite, a rock well suited for metrology application for his long term thermal and dimensional stability, high flatness accuracy, high bending strength and insensitivity to mechanical overloading. It has been machined with a precision better than 10 μm to guarantee a preliminary well positioning of the corner mirrors. The GP2 vacuum chamber has been designed in order to give access to the diagonal resonators by enclosing the path of two external laser beams along these, as well as the perimeter path of the counter- propagating beams. To stabilize the absolute length of a square RL diagonal resonators with respect to an interrogating high-stability laser we worked out an interferometric metrology technique. The technique, already tested last year on two Fabry-Perot resonators simulating on an optical bench the diagonals of a ring laser [Belfi, J. (2014). Interferometric length metrology for the dimensional control of ultra-stable Ring Laser Gyroscopes.], will be implemented on GP2 in the next months.


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